Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)

Dimethyltryptamine, or DMT, is a remarkable compound known for its profound and often otherworldly effects on human consciousness. Within the realm of DMT, there exists a diverse array of variants, each with its unique characteristics and experiences. In this course, we will embark on an extraordinary journey into the enigmatic world of DMT, exploring three distinct variants: NN-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, and 4-AcO-DMT. Together, we will delve into the chemistry, effects, and cultural significance of these compounds, offering a comprehensive understanding of the multi-faceted nature of DMT and its role in the tapestry of psychedelic experiences.



N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT) is a potent psychedelic tryptamine that works on the body primarily by interacting with the brain’s serotonin receptors. NN-DMT’s effects are responsible for the profoundly altered states of consciousness and vivid experiences it induces. Here’s how NN-DMT works on the body:


Discovery by the Western World and the Synthesis of DMT

Stephen Szara, a Hungarian chemist and psychiatrist, originally aimed to explore the psychoactive properties of LSD. However, due to regulatory restrictions and the challenging environment surrounding psychedelic research in the mid-20th century, Szara faced difficulties obtaining LSD for his studies.  Szara had turned his attention to NN-DMT after his order for LSD from the Swiss company Sandoz Laboratories was rejected on the grounds that the powerful psychotropic could be dangerous in the hands of a communist country.

Szara became intrigued by the chemical structure of NN-DMT. Driven by a curiosity about the potential psychoactive effects of DMT, Szara successfully synthesized the compound in a laboratory setting.  Szara’s work with DMT extended beyond mere chemical synthesis; he was among the first to explore the psychoactive effects of the substance through rigorous experimentation.


How does NN-DMT Work?

NN-DMT primarily affects the brain by binding 5-HT2A receptors. This receptor is associated with mood regulation, perception, and cognitive processes.  When DMT binds to 5-HT2A receptors, it acts as a partial agonist, meaning it activates the receptor to varying degrees. This partial agonism leads to altered signaling within the brain, resulting in the characteristic effects of a NN-DMT experience.  Its partial agonism at this receptor leads to alterations in mood, perception, and cognition, accompanied by visual and auditory hallucinations and a sense of self-transcendence.

The Default Mode Network (DMN), as previously discussed,  is a network of interconnected brain regions associated with self-referential thoughts, the sense of self, and mind-wandering.  NN-DMT has been shown to modulate the DMN. During a NN-DMT experience, this network’s activity is altered, leading to a decrease in its connectivity. This change in DMN activity is believed to be linked to the profound changes in ego perception, self-transcendence, and a sense of interconnectedness experienced during the trip.


Psychedelic Experience

The interaction of NN-DMT with serotonin receptors and the modulation of the DMN leads to the characteristic effects of a NN-DMT experience. Users often report visual hallucinations, vivid colors, geometric patterns, and encounters with otherworldly beings.  In addition to visual effects, NN-DMT experiences can include intense emotional and psychological responses, enhanced introspection, and a feeling of profound insight and unity with the universe.


Duration and Intensity:

NN-DMT’s effects are rapid in onset and short-lived compared to other psychedelics. A DMT trip typically lasts about 15-30 minutes, but during this time, users often report that time and space become distorted, making the experience feel much longer.  The intensity of a NN-DMT experience can vary, but it is often described as one of the most potent and immersive of all psychedelics.


Metabolism and Elimination

NN-DMT is rapidly metabolized by the body. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase breaks down DMT in the liver, making it inactive when taken orally.  However, one of the most popular ways to take consume NN-DMT is to consume it as Ayahuasca.  This is also the way NN-DMT is prepared and consumer in native Amazonian ceremonies.

In traditional Ayahuasca preparations, NN-DMT-containing plants are combined with MAO-inhibiting plants to prevent the rapid metabolism of NN-DMT, allowing for a longer and more sustained experience.



NN-DMT is traditionally consumed as part of Ayahuasca, a psychedelic brew used in indigenous Amazonian shamanic practices. Ayahuasca combines NN-DMT-containing plants with MAO inhibitors to extend and potentiate the DMT experience.  Ayahuasca is a powerful psychoactive brew that has been used for centuries in indigenous Amazonian shamanic rituals and is gaining recognition in modern contexts for its potential therapeutic and spiritual benefits. The term “ayahuasca” typically refers to a psychoactive brew made from the combination of two key plants:

  1. Banisteriopsis caapi: This woody vine, commonly known as caapi or yagé, contains harmine and harmaline, which are beta-carboline alkaloids. These compounds are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs). MAOs block the action of the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which normally breaks down NN-DMT when ingested. By inhibiting this enzyme, the DMT in the brew becomes orally active.
  2. Psychotria viridis or other DMT-containing plants: These plants provide the source of NN-DMT. In the context of ayahuasca, DMT is not orally active on its own due to the action of stomach enzymes and monoamine oxidase. However, when combined with the MAOIs from B. caapi, the DMT becomes active when ingested.

When consumed, ayahuasca induces an altered state of consciousness for a long period of time that often includes vivid and intricate visual and auditory hallucinations. Users may experience introspection, emotional release, and a sense of connectedness with the natural world and the spiritual realm.  Ayahuasca has a long history of use among indigenous Amazonian tribes, such as the Shipibo, Asháninka, and Yawanawa. It plays a central role in their shamanic rituals, where it is believed to facilitate communication with the spirit world, provide healing, and offer insights.  Ayahuasca is typically consumed in a ceremonial setting guided by a shaman or experienced facilitator. The ceremony often involves chanting, singing, and traditional rituals. The shaman or facilitator plays a vital role in guiding and supporting participants through their experiences.  In recent years, ayahuasca has gained attention for its potential therapeutic applications. Some studies suggest it may be effective in treating mental health conditions such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and addiction. However, research in this area is ongoing.



5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT) are both powerful psychedelics, but they have distinct mechanisms of action and produce different effects on the body and mind. 5-MEO-DMT is typically smoked and is known for being very quick and very strong. 

Like NN-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT primarily affects the brain by binding to 5-HT2A receptor. However, 5-MeO-DMT is often considered a more potent agonist of this receptor than NN-DMT.  5-MeO-DMT induces intense and rapid changes in consciousness. Users often report a profound sense of unity and ego dissolution, accompanied by a feeling of merging with the universe. The experience is often described as non-dual and lacking the intricate visual and auditory hallucinations typical of NN-DMT.  However, users of 5-MEO-DMT often report being transported to another place.

The effects of 5-MeO-DMT are shorter in duration than NN-DMT, typically lasting only a few minutes. Despite the brevity, the intensity of the experience can be overwhelming, leading to a rapid and deep shift in consciousness.  Both 5-MeO-DMT and NN-DMT interact with serotonin receptors, but 5-MeO-DMT is often considered to produce more intense, non-dual, and ego-dissolving experiences in a shorter timeframe. 



Bufo is a term commonly associated with the Colorado River toad, also known as the Sonoran Desert toad or the bufo alvarius toad. This toad, scientifically known as Bufo alvarius, is native to the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It is particularly well-known for the psychoactive secretions it produces.

The primary reason for the toad’s notoriety is its production of powerful psychedelic compounds in its venom. Especially interesting is the large amounts of 5-MeO-DMT in this toad venom.

Indigenous peoples in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico have used the secretions from the Colorado River toad in traditional healing and spiritual ceremonies for centuries. The toad’s venom was believed to have therapeutic properties and was used to address various ailments and connect with the spiritual world.

In recent years, interest in the use of 5-MeO-DMT extracted from the toad’s venom has grown in the broader psychedelic community. Some individuals seek out the substance for its potential to induce profound and transformative mystical experiences. However, it’s important to note that the collection of secretions from the toad is controversial, and there are concerns about its impact on the toad population. Additionally, the legal status of 5-MeO-DMT varies by jurisdiction.

When people refer to consuming bufo, they are often talking about extracting and using the 5-MeO-DMT from the toad secretion. The process typically involves drying and smoking the crystallized substance.



Often referred to as a synthetic analogue of psilocybin, 4-AcO-DMT has gained popularity for its ability to induce profound experiences akin to those encountered with magic mushrooms.


What Is 4-AcO-DMT?

4-AcO-DMT, scientifically known as 4-Acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a synthetic tryptamine compound. Structurally, it closely resembles psilocybin, the active compound found in magic mushrooms. Like psilocybin, 4-AcO-DMT is considered a prodrug, meaning it is metabolized in the body into psilocin, the primary psychoactive compound responsible for the psychedelic effects.


A Brief History:

The history of 4-AcO-DMT is somewhat obscure, as it doesn’t have the same traditional and cultural associations as some other psychedelics. It was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann, the same chemist who discovered LSD, and Franz Troxler in the late 1950s. However, it wasn’t until the 21st century that 4-AcO-DMT gained recognition among the psychedelic community.


The Psychedelic Experience:

4-AcO-DMT is often described as a “psilocybin analog” because its effects closely mirror those of magic mushrooms. Users commonly report:

  • Visual Hallucinations: Like magic mushrooms, 4-AcO-DMT can induce vivid and intricate visual hallucinations, such as geometric patterns and flowing colors.
  • Euphoria and Emotional Release: Users often experience enhanced mood, a sense of interconnectedness, and emotional catharsis. Some even describe the feeling of being in touch with the collective consciousness of humanity.
  • Profound Insights: 4-AcO-DMT has a reputation for inducing deep introspection and providing profound insights into one’s life, psyche, and the nature of reality.


Legal Status and Safety:

The legal status of 4-AcO-DMT varies by country and region. In some places, it falls into a legal grey area, while in others, it is explicitly controlled as a scheduled substance. As with any substance, safety should be a priority, and responsible use is essential. Users should be cautious, start with lower doses, and be in a supportive and controlled environment.


4-AcO-DMT is a fascinating compound that provides access to the profound and mysterious realms of the psychedelic experience. It offers users a chance to explore their consciousness, gain insights, and connect with the deeper aspects of the mind. As with all psychedelics, respect for the substance and mindfulness in its use are crucial. While the science behind 4-AcO-DMT continues to evolve, its role in expanding human consciousness and our understanding of the mind remains a compelling subject of exploration for many.

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